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I - STRUCTURE OF THE LANGUAGE AND VOCABULARY (give only one answer) 1- Ashley couldn’t understood. A) make her ? make herself C) do herself D) do her 2- He wasn’t sure he should tell her or not. A) whether ? perhaps C) as to D) for 3- Mike made a lot of mistakes: he is hopeless French. A) in ? with C) on D) at 4- This year the price of petrol fell 6 %. A) with ? at C) from D) by 5- This is the moment the couple enter the church. A) which ? when C) in which D) that 6- Your film on South America was very interesting, as I’d already visited the country. A) furthermore ? all the more so C) in addition D) what’s more 7- Who? A) do you think she is ? do you think is she C) you think she is D) you think is she 8- All these embroidered towels are really beautiful and you would be surprised to know how little they cost. A) even more ? that’s more C) what’s more D) more than it 9- Leonardo da Vinci the famous artist everybody knows an engineer and a scientist. A) was not only/but also ? was not enough/but also C) only was/and also D) only was/but as well 10- If everybody gave up smoking to-day there would be people developing lung cancer. A) far less ? many less C) such fewer D) far fewer 11- Did workers a share of the profits? A) are used to getting ? were used to getting C) use to get D) used to get 12- Hurry up, please and your work as quickly as possible. A) get on with ? get up with C) get out with D) get rid of 13- I’d rather you to him on the phone. A)talking ? talked C) to talk D) talk 14- As soon as he entered the lecture hall he was met by a of insults. A) breeze ? gale C) hail D) tornado 15- Mike his shirts at the laundry. A) has/washed ? made/be washed C) had/ to wash D) makes/to wash 16- It is said that the museum some new paintings by Picasso. A) bought/since 2 months ? will buy/after 2 months C) will buy/next month D) had bought/last month 17- John for being late. A) should have punished ? should be punishing C) would have to be punished D) should have been punished 18- He told me he a new computer if his parents afford it. A) bought/could ? would buy/could C) shouldn’t buy/can D) will buy/could 19- If you had told me that before, I you. A) should help ? would help C) could help D) would have helped 20- Look fast Paula can run now. A) how ? so C) how much D) so much 21- When we in Denmark we’ll a car to visit the country. A) will be/lease ? will be/lend C) are/hire D) are/let 22- Would you like you with the gardening.
- 1 - A) that I help ? me to help C) me helping D) I help 23- This young man is to be a promising musician. A) said ? talked C) saying D) told 24- Thanks me a hand! A) to give ? giving C) in giving D) for giving 25- Never so ashamed! A) have I been ? were I C) I had been D) I have been 26- I wish I the President when he came to visit our school. A) have met ? had met C) was meeting D) have been meeting 27- It’s high time you revising for your exam. A) should start ? will start C) start D) started 28- Young children don’t read anymore, they prefer TV or video games. A) to watch/play ? they are watching/playing C) they watch/play D) they should watch/play 29- What’s the point by car if we can walk. A) of going ? in going C) to go D) for going 30- Are you sure now? I think. A) not ? no C) yes D) so 31- Peter can’t help jokes. A) to make ? to making C) making D) make 32- Americans eat hamburgers. A) the most of ? most of C) the most D) most 33- It is now 4 years Mary started working. A) since ? ago C) when D) for 34- do you go to the theatre? A) whenever ? how often C) how long D) since when 35- It’s 2:00 a.m and I’m working! A) again ? ever C) yet D) still 36- Don’t worry! he could show any time! A) up ? in C) into D) by 37- I didn’t think you would so much time talking to her. A) spend ? pass C) lose D) have 38- We don’t see much of her. A) those days ? these days C) at this time D) at that time 39- Janet and Geoffrey their first baby 2 years ago. A) have ? had C) have had D) had had 40- When you deliver this mail? A) have ? are C) will D) Ø II - EQUIVALENT EXPRESSIONS Find the word or expression which is closest in meaning to the underlined one: 41- His car broke down, thus he walked home. A) moreover ? and yet C) therefore D) what’s more 42- There has been a military coup in South Africa. A) assassination ? attack C) blow D) shot 43- They paid him in a lump sum all that they’d owed for months.
- 2 - A) the whole amount at once ? with counterfeit money C) with stolen money D) with bank notes only 44- He is handy at plumbing, he can fix a tap in no time. A) very quickly ? sometimes C) on time D) at times 45- We had a house surveyed last month. A) overlooked ? visited C) burgled D) valued III – IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS AND PROVERBS 46- “What do you do for a living?“, means: A) what’s your job? ? what do you do with your life? C) what do you do to keep fit? D) what do you do not to be ill and avoid diseases? 47- “We’re all set for the meeting”, means: A) the meeting can start now. ? we are preparing for the meeting C) we all agree on having a meeting D) we are ready 48- “I have butterflies in my stomach!“, means: A) I’m feeling hungry ? I’m feeling angry C) I’m feeling nervous D) I’m feeling sea-sick 49- “He really is a chip off the old block”, means: A) he has got the same characteristics as his parents ? his face has got coarse features C) he looks old even if he isn’t D) his mind is far from being quick 50- “Go ahead and keep a stiff upper lip!”, means: A) be bold ? be astute C) be firm and brave D) ignore the people around you 51- “Poor Donald, he always plays second fiddle”, means: A) he is always feeling sad ? he takes a subordinate role C) he plays in a orchestra D) he is badly paid as a musician 52- “Enough is as good as a feast”, means: A) feasts are a good thing ? good food is to be enjoyed C) good things should be enjoyed with moderation D) there are not enough feasts 53- “He was given the red carpet treatment”, means: A) he was treated as a V.I.P ? he gave the carpet some treatment C) he likes red carpets D) the carpet was dyed IV – COMPREHENSION Fill in the gaps with the most suitable words: Got a chip on your shoulder? You may soon – they want to put an electronic one in your body so Big Brother can watch you. It sounds like science fiction, but we could all soon be implanted with electronic chips that will revolutionise our way of life. The rice grain-sized chips, currently being developed by a British firm, will carry a unique code number so that you can prove ---54--- you are in shops, banks, at work, or anywhere equipped ---55--- a scanner.
- 3 - The devices are already used in pets, race horses and other animals, but will soon be used by humans as they are a much more reliable form of identification than traditional signatures or fingerprints. The makers say that in the future a chip in your shoulder or forearm will be ---56--- like a supermarket bar code when you are taking out cash from the bank or paying for goods. It is also possible to have scanners in doorways so that, for example, parents will ---57--- electronically exactly when their children are at school. Richard Fry, the managing director of Avid, the company that makes the chips and is offering the service, believes that everyone should be chipped ---58--- birth. ---59--- would be a number of advantages throughout life – you could stop babies being stolen from hospital ---60--- for a start as only parents with a matching chip could take a child out of the hospital. As the child gets older there are other security advantages. They could travel on the underground ---61--
- buying a ticket and could then prove their age in the pub. Avid is already talking to the ambulance service about giving scanners to every ambulance in the country so that road accidents victims can be positively identified and matched with their medical histories before being treated. The technology has other possibilities, too. ---62--- batteries are now being developed which can be inserted under the skin so that the chips can be read from far greater distances. There will be the possibility of having under-floor scanners in corridors or pavements so that everyone’s movements can be tracked. Fry says the technology would then give governments advantages in the “management of people” but the idea has ---63--- some civil liberties groups who say such state control is dangerous. He admits the issue is an important one, but says that libertarians should support the idea. THE EXPRESS, OCTOBER 4, 1998 54- A) What ? whom C) which D) who 55- A) with ? by C) of D) for 56- A) looked down ? scanned C) skimmed D) surveyed 57- A) find out ? search C) question D) look for 58- A) in ? for C) at D) with 59- A) these ? those C) they D) there 60- A) surgeries ? dormitories C) wards D) rooms 61- A) by ? without C) with D) in 62- A) miniature ? shrunk C) minimum D) minimalist 63- A) dazzled ? rang a bell C) reminded D) alarmed Read the following texts and for each of them choose the answer which you think best fits the text. Give only one answer per question. ABUSIVE BEHAVIOUR Violent prison beatings, deadly choke-holds, policemen torturing suspects. These are not things one expects to happen in the country that loves to preach to the world on the subject of human rights. Yet a report issued on October 6th by Amnesty International chronicles extensive human-rights abuses in America’s criminal-justice system, and contends that the government has done very little to redress them. Although the report also dwells on the death penalty (long a target of Amnesty’s campaigns), it is the exposé of the police brutality that is most striking. Some abuses of American law enforcement are already well known. In 1991, the videotaped beating of Rodney King brought police brutality into American living rooms; more recently, several high-profile cases have exposed patterns of abuse in the police department of New York and Boston. Less well known, however, is what happens behind the imposing walls and barbed wire of America’s prisons.
- 4 - The Amnesty report- relying on anecdote rather than statistics- paints a picture of crowded and inhumane prisons, inhabited overwhelmingly by minorities, where rape and torture by officers are frequent. In one California state prison, guards are alleged to have staged “gladiator” fights between inmates and placed bets on the outcome. In Texas, videotape captured guards kicking and beating inmates, shooting them with stun guns and coaxing dogs to bite them. Congress has asked the Justice Department to collect national data from police departments about brutality. It has not, however, allocated the funding necessary for a comprehensive study. Many civic organisations contend that the political clout of the police unions has made the government’s attempts to crack down on brutality deliberately feeble. According to John Crew of the American Civil Liberties Unions, the policemen’s “white male old guard” has thwarted efforts to reform the system. A Justice Department spokesman points out that the department has prosecuted 300 cases of police brutality in the past five years, and has been granted greater authority under the 1994 Crime Control Bill to crack down on police departments. Yet it is clear that if the crimes recounted by Amnesty are ever to stop, reform will have to come from the other side of the “Blue Wall of Silence”. THE ECONOMIST,10.10.1998 64- The most shocking aspect of the report by Amnesty International is: A) the death penalty in the U.S. ? the extent of police brutality. C) that Americans preach to the world. D) the rise in crime in the U.S. 65- A) there has been little publicity about abuses by the police. ? a lot is known about the Rodney King case. C) people video high profile cases of police brutality in their living rooms. D) the walls and barbed wire of American prisons are well known. 66- The Amnesty report A) relies on statistics. ? contains pictures of prisons. C) says most of the prisoners come from ethnic minorities. D) says that the guards and prisoners bet on gladiators fights. 67- Civil Liberties Organisations think A) the government is trying to break up the trade unions. ? the policemen are doing their best to reform the system. C) the government’s attempts to stop brutality are deliberate. D) the police unions are politically powerful. 68- The1994 Crime Control Bill A) gives more power to the Justice Department. ? has prosecuted 300 cases of police brutality. C) will stop brutality in 5 years. D) gives greater authority to the police. OVER AND OUT For 14 years, from his house in Pahrump, Nevada, Art Bell has been the voice of truth for up to 10m Americans who have listened to his late-night radio programme. The truth, as his audience saw it, was the news they didn’t want you to know: the fleet of flying saucers at Area 51, the real messages of crop circles, the hidden third secret of Fatima, government experiments gone horribly wrong and irrefutable signs of the end of the word. Mr Bell made Cydonia, the alleged pyramids on Mars, as well
- 5 - known as the Grand Canyon to his devotees, who started Art Bell clubs across the country and made 21m visits to his website this year alone. His programme reached more than 400 radio stations across America. But on October 13th, citing a “ threatening, terrible event” that had happened to his family, Mr Bell abruptly announced that he was leaving the air. “What you are listening to is my final broadcast,” he said at the end of the programme. He promised that, if he could, he would eventually tell his audience the story of why he had left. In the meantime, the conspiracy community is in ecstasy of paranoia. Speculation runs the gamut from CIA hit-squads to UFO abduction. The Economist, however, has learned the real reason why Art Bell left. A government programme targeting (Remainder of this story mysteriously lost in transmission ED). THE ECONOMIST,17.10.1998 69- Art Bell’s broadcasts were about A) religion. ? agriculture. C) government experiments. D) the paranormal. 70- Art Bell’s audience believed A) that they did not want to know the news. ? that people wanted to know about flying saucers. C) the truth was unpalatable to the authorities. D) crop circles were not real. 71- Cydonia is A) a name for the pyramids. ? supposed to be on a planet. C) a website. D) a radio programme. 72- Mr Bell said he was stopping his broadcasts A) because of a great event about to happen to his family. ? because of something that had happened to his family. C) he might tell the audience why he was stopping. D) because of a promise he had made. 73- The community A) are in ecstasy because he left. ? are speculating on the C.I.A. C) are guessing about his reasons for leaving. D) think he has been hit by the C.I.A. ROAD TO NOWHERE If only all infrastructure industries in Asia were as resilient as telecoms. But roads, transport systems, power plants and dams have not weathered the crisis well. Only those that were almost built, already paid for, or deemed too important to halt have continued throughout the recession in South –East Asia. Part of the reason is that such mega-projects tend to be all-or-nothing propositions. Telecoms networks can be expanded slowly or quickly, as market conditions allow ; and they can usually sign up paying subscribers long before they are “finished”. But until other mega-projects are completed, they cannot charge anybody or pay back debt- who wants to cross a half-finished bridge? Nobody knows this better than Sir Gordon Wu, the founder of Hopewell Holdings, one of the region’s biggest power and road-building firms. He has suffered two of Asia’s biggest cancellations, a $2.5 billion elevated rail-and-highway system in Bangkok and a $1.8 billion coal-fired power plant in Indonesia. In good times the political connections necessary to win such projects were a licence to print money. But now that the underlying economics have changed, such connections are not enough. The elevated rail project was a good idea, as any visitor to traffic-clogged Bangkok can attest. Sir Gordon’s scheme to pay for it was also clever: he would charge nothing to convert a railway to the airport into a 37-mile mass-transportation system, in exchange for the right to build shopping centres
- 6 - and other commercial properties on the land around it. But when it turned out that the transport ministry with which he had signed the deal did not have the right to grant him the land, construction slowed. When the crisis hit, the Thai government cancelled the deal altogether. Today, Hopewell’s shares are trading at only 15% of their peak in Sir Gordon, once a dollar billionaire, is now worth, well, just a few hundred million dollars. Banks and investors alike shun the company. “Infrastructure” is a dirty word in Asia. Who knows when the moguls ready to spend billions of dollars on toll-roads and shopping malls will return? THE ECONOMIST, 31. 10.1998 74- The Infrastructure industries in Asia A) are as resilient as telecoms. ? have been affected by the weather. C) have continued during the recession in South East Asia. D) have only worked if nearly finished or previously financed. 75- Important projects other than telecoms A) can be expanded slowly according to market conditions. ? can be paid for by charging the public. C) cannot be charged for until they are finished. D) can recruit subscribers. 76- A) Sir Gordon Wu is ill because of a coal fired plant in Indonesia. ? Sir Gordon Wu found a big power and road building firm. C) when the economy was booming political connections could print money. D) in the present Asian recession influential friends cannot help entirely. 77- Sir Gordon Wu’s elevated rail project in Thailand was not a good idea because A) there is not enough traffic in Bangkok. ? the Ministry of Transport were not authorised to grant the land. C) it would cost nothing to convert the railway into a mass transport system. D) Sir Gordon Wu cancelled the agreement when the crisis hit. 78- A) Sir Gordon Wu is still a millionaire. ? now Hopewell’s shares are trading at a peak of 15%. C) the infrastructure industries are now avoiding banks. D) Infrastructure is the new fashionable word in Asia. TURTLE SOUP Is free trade in shrimps more important than saving turtles from extinction? Of course not, environmentalists argue. Which is why some are up in arms at a WTO ruling on October 12th. It decided that America breaches international trade law by banning shrimp imports from countries which use nets that also trap turtles. Despite the fuss, the WTO’s latest move is a big step towards resolving the real issue: how to champion free trade while preserving an endangered species. And since it concedes that the environment, like trade, merits WTO protection, it will have wide repercussions.
- 7 - Existing WTO rules allowed exceptions for conservation measures, so long as they were not a disguised form of protectionism and did not discriminate unfairly between countries. In this case, however, the WTO initially condemned America’s embargo on shrimps from India, Malaysia, Pakistan and Thailand out of hand. This week’s appeal judgment was less clear–cut. It recognised America’s right to protect sea turtles. The trouble was how it went about it- by imposing its rules unilaterally, rather than by negotiating turtle-protection agreements, as it had with countries in the Americas. Indeed, moderate greens cheered the WTO’s decision, for showing a deeper appreciation of the need for environmental exemptions. They also welcomed the freedom they will now enjoy to put their cases to future WTO disputesettlement panels. In response to the ruling, America has said it will step up efforts to secure international agreements protecting turtles It is also considering modifying its import ban by limiting it to offending fishing fleets, rather than countries. That would greatly reduce its scope, since most banned shrimps are actually farmed, not fished from turtle-inhabited waters. If America fails to comply with the ruling, the four Asian plaintiffs can demand compensation or erect trade barriers of their own. American disobedience would also undermine its pressure on the European Union over bananas and hormone- treated beef. That pressure mounted on October 14th with American threats of sanctions if the EU fails to comply with WTO’s rulings. America’s turtle setback, however, will encourage the country’s protectionists, green-leaning Democrats and other WTO critics. It will also boost calls for more transparency at the WTO, which many see as remote, unaccountable and secretive. Opening up the WTO’s workings may be no bad thing. It might even dispel the fears of those who think free-traders cannot also care about turtles. THE ECONOMIST,17. 10. 1998 79- The World Trade Organisation’s latest ruling A) is about saving shrimps. ? is approved of by environmentalists. C) says that America supports international law by banning shrimp. D) takes the environment into consideration. 80- Moderate members of the Green Party A) think America should negotiate the protection of turtles. ? think America should impose unilateral rules. C) did not agree with the WTO’s decision. D) think the WTO should take the environment into account. 81- America A) will have limited action because most banned shrimps are cultivated. ? has said it will stop international efforts to save turtles. C) has penalised fishing fleets. D) wants shrimps from turtle inhabited waters. 82- If America fails to comply with the ruling A) it will demand compensation from the Asian countries concerned. ? the Asian countries will raise trade barriers on bananas. C) America will not export beef. D) America could find it difficult to negotiate with Europe. 83- On October 14th America threatened sanctions on the EU. This A) will mean a demand for more accountability from the WTO.
- 8 - ? will show that free traders do not care about turtles. C) will encourage America to criticise the WTO. D) the WTO is situated in a remote location.
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